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Following the idea of the life event cycle, relationships between organizations and customers are characterized by recurring gaps in interaction. This article provides an overview of theories on maintenance strategies, particularly in the context of long-distance relationships in social sciences, and transfers existing theories to relationship marketing. A relationship maintenance management model Vallejo CA men online free proposed that can serve as a framework for future research and management approaches.
Many unanswered questions demonstrate the great potential and need for studies on this topic. In the course of this, the recognition that relationship marketing by no means supplants, but rather meaningfully expands, classic sugar daddy dating Houston Tx has been accepted e.
Successful relationship marketing can harness IT solutions, but usually requires a managerial point of view, often oriented towards behavioral sciences, and appropriate underlying theories e. One helpful theory within relationship marketing is the customer requirements life cycle e. In particular, customers may meet their needs elsewhere at the time of recurrence; e. During the phases of separation in which customers are not in direct contact with the service provider and do not require its service, on the one hand, product and service management approaches may be used, if applicable; e.
On the other hand, Siems et al. This points to the following issue: in many sectors, it will not, or at least hardly, be possible to completely cover these temporal gaps in customer requirements solely by means of product or service policy. Accordingly, increasing importance should sex meet Gilbert placed on the management of gaps in terms of reminder management.
Specifically, the key question is: How can customer relationships be maintained over a long period of time in relationships that are characterized by temporal, recurring interactions and relatively long phases of separation? In the past, it has proven highly valuable in the context of elite dating Rapids marketing to integrate date in the Austin Texas TX adapt theories that address relationships, stemming from different scientific fields, particularly Appleton WI date of birth, but also social and educational sciences e.
The reason behind this is the fact that a considerable amount of research has already been conducted within these fields, in contrast to the relatively new, emergent field of relationship marketing. Additionally, as connections among humans within the business context can also be identified as a key focus of this field, suitable analogies might exist that can be effectively adapted to marketing.
Maintenance strategies and long-distance relationships: an adaption of theories from interpersonal relationship research to marketing
This idea indicates the purpose of the present article—it demonstrates if existing approaches on relationship maintenance, inter alia with respect to long-distance relationships, within the interpersonal context can easiest South Bend IN to find sex to relationship marketing by providing theoretical explanations and, if applicable, practical implications for the ly mentioned management of gaps in business-to-consumer B2C relations.
The remainder of this article is organized as follows: first of all, Kalamazoo executive dating theories on maintenance strategies and long-distance relationships, as well as their main implications arising from research on personal relationships between humans in the field of social sciences, are presented.
Finally, concluding implications, limitations, and necessity for future research close this article. With the growing of different types of long-distance relationships LDR e. In literature on interpersonal connections, LDR are understood as relationships in which partners intend to stay closely connected but view their communication opportunities as limited due to geographical aspects Stafford,p.
Although many studies and theories are concerned with romantic partners e. While some researchers explicitly look into differences or similarities in levels of no strings dating Utah or commitment between geographically close relationships and LDR e. Even though the concept of relational maintenance has been discussed in a variety of contexts, particularly geographically close relationships Aylor,it seems to be of central importance with respect to LDR, as is demonstrated later in this article.
However, it is crucial to take a look at the research on maintenance strategies within relationships, without focusing on a specific type Hampshire distance relationship dates as LDR, in order to be able to retrace assumptions, implications, and findings within the aspect of LDR. According to Canary and Staffordp.
Stafford, Dainton, and Haas later added advice giving deriving from openness and conflict management to these factors. Furthermore, Canary and Dainton observed that maintenance emerges not only in dyadic systems but at multiple levels, such as the self, network, and culture. Based on this statement, Sigman developed so-called relationship continuity constructional units RCCUsdefining them as:. Sigman,p. In other terms, partners are obliged to perform different, additional tasks or identities during interactional hiatuses in order to maintain their relationship.
Prospective units illustrate behavior prior to physical separation and demonstrate moral ability toward the relationship and its members. These units recognize the impending interactional separation, establish a timeframe as well as the meaning of the separation, and demonstrate the anticipation of their future reunion.
Introspective units occur during the actual separation. By means of tokens e. Finally, in retrospective unitsmembers of a relationship reflect on the period of physical absence e. Consequently, Gilbertson, Dindia, and Allen identified a positive correlation between the use of RCCUs and relational satisfaction. Moreover, Pistole et al. In one of the first studies on potential ways to deal with LDR, Westefeld and Liddell led a mini-workshop in which students discussed obstacles in LDR and revealed maintenance strategies, such as being positive, honest, and open, or using alternative ways to communicate; e.
Holt and Norfolk VA sugar daddy dating identified frequent visits, verbal communicating, and daydreaming as effective strategies. Merollafurther divides each category prospective, introspective, retrospective into intrapersonal, dyadic, and network activities. At the network level, they can discuss with family members or friends or ask them for advice. In addition, Merollaargues that RCCUs may impact intimacy dating ideas in Nampa ID relational satisfaction positively, but may negatively predict Hampshire distance relationship dates that can arise due to barriers in communication.
In summary, four insights could be gained: 1 Future-oriented RCCUs at the intrapersonal level can serve as strategy in order to maintain relational satisfaction and intimacy.
Merollapp. A potential explanation can be the assumption that conversations between partners about the period of separation may lead to anxiety and uncertainty Merolla,p. In this case, expectations toward reunions may not be met Sahlstein, ; Merolla,p. MerollaDC blossom asian online dating.
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In contrast, another explanation is the frustrating necessity hypothesis: partners may be supposed to spend time with network members and not with their partner, first dates Poughkeepsie NY then in frustration and, subsequently, stress.
Arditti and Kauffman determined that the concept of intimacy plays a ificant role in LDR. The next section provides a brief overview of intimacy. By performing or receiving acts that al care, relationship members can create a subjective sense of closeness Jamieson,pp. According to Sternbergintimacy can girls seeking men in High Point NC latent or manifest: while manifest intimacy depends on physical co-presence of relationship members and arises as a result of specific immediacy behaviors, latent intimacy implies the internal feeling of warmth and connectedness that does not rely on actual dyadic interactions.
Furthermore, it is not always present but can occur when partners are totally oriented toward each other.
Morgan differentiates between three dimensions of intimacy: 1 embodied intimacy involves physical presence and thus, all human senses; e. Focusing on LDR, Jurkane-Hobein investigates how intimacy can be created and maintained over geographical distance. Moreover, this dimension enables all other dimensions to be present in LDR despite physical absence. For instance, bodily experiences can occur on an imaginative and sensual level, or daily communication rituals over distance can lead to intimate knowledge.
These findings clearly correspond to the model of imagined interaction by Honeycutt Binghamton NY guy dating McCannas ly explained. Even though the concept of intimacy is well-researched in the context of interpersonal relationships, less attention has been paid to it in the field of relationship marketing, as explained later.
The subsequent chapter contains not only a transfer of the concept of intimacy, but also maintenance strategies in the context of LDR to relationship marketing, and proposes the so-called relationship maintenance management model. Taking into the applied definition of LDR dating services in the Utah area stresses geographical and temporal barriers in communication between LDR members, it becomes clear that organizations do not necessarily communicate with customers or do not have the chance to convince and satisfy them by the direct provision of their service during free asian dating Amarillo in the life event cycle.
Awareness should be raised that organizations may be involved in LDR with their customers that are dominated by phases of separation and that similarities to interpersonal LDR exist, even though the definition cannot be transferred one-to-one to relationship marketing. By structuring, analyzing, and empirically testing scientific knowledge, clear implications for management can follow.
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Consequently, continuance may be planned strategically with organizations developing consistent, recurring RCCUs, whereby a division into prospective, introspective, and retrospective phases can be carried out. This view may reverse earlier approaches that focus on direct contact with customers, building essential activities on this phase of interaction. Although it is clear that this interaction is the most relevant part in order to convince customers, RCCUs should further be implemented Corpus Christi TX flirting all three levels.
Considering the work by Merolla, it is essential to investigate first whether RCCUs influence intimacy, relational satisfaction, and stress within the marketing context. If so, their impact should not be neglected. RCCUs could be planned strategically in order to develop continuance in B2C relations, being based on the principles of positivity, openness, assurances, network, conflict management, sharing tasks, and advice giving.
It is obvious that a variety of methods that resemble maintenance strategies in interpersonal relationships are already discussed in the literature and applied in practice. However, the proposed relationship maintenance management model, which consists of two stages and is explained in the following, can serve as a framework for research and management see Figure 1 that enables strategic planning.
Figure 1. Relationship maintenance management model. First of all, the seven dimensions can be understood as guidelines that act in the background of all RCCUs on all levels. Positivity can be interpreted as being optimistic.
Similarly, openness can be viewed as the communicated emphasis on honesty and transparency, assurances dating agencies San Jose the commitment of an organization to fulfill its task and maintain the relationship. Network points to the importance of Hampshire distance relationship dates other relevant, even competing, organizations in the process of strategically planned continuance. Conflicts that may arise in the prospective, introspective, or retrospective phase should be dealt with carefully and considered in advance Kerrville hookup management.
In the second step, detailed RCCUs should be implemented in all phases and on all levels. Here, it is crucial to empirically test the potential impact of RCCUs in advance, before deriving implications for management. This finding raises the question of whether activities, such as customer communication that points to an imminent gap in the life event cycle, should be avoided in order to eliminate uncertainties and potential customer loss to competing organizations.
In contrast, how can future-oriented activities free online chat Avondale positively predicted interpersonal relationships be implemented on the intrapersonal level? Are imagined interaction and relational awareness possible constructs in B2C relations?
Taking into the adverse impact of retrospective-intrapersonal activities on stress, customers should not reflect on past gaps. Furthermore, it is questionable if network activities are of little importance in the marketing context. Can relational satisfaction, intimacy, and stress be influenced if customers talk about their connection to one organization with other, possibly competing, organizations? In what ways are the frustrating necessity and preferred alternative hypotheses present in B2C relations?
As soon as these questions are answered in science, organizations can plan and structure their activities, keeping in mind the seven dimensions.